dei-1, dei̯ǝ-, dī-, di̯ā-

    dei-1, dei̯ǝ-, dī-, di̯ā-
    English meaning: to shine; day; sun; sky god, god
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “hell glänzen, schimmern, scheinen”
    Note: (older “*dart rays”?)
    Note: The origin of the sky god was Anatolia, where the Sumerian sun god Utu was called father god: Utu + Root pǝtḗ (r) gen. pǝtr-és, -ós : “father” - “father Utu”: Luvian DUTU-wa-az: 107 iii 8; KBo XXIX 25 ii 6*, DUTU-wa-za ‘sun god”.
    Material: O.Ind. dī́ -dē-ti “ seems, shines”, 3. pl. dīdyati, Impf. 3. sg. ádīdēt, Imper. 2. sg. didīhí , su-dī-tí-ḥ) “ having nice brilliance “, Kaus. dīpá yati “ ignites, illuminates”, dī́ pyate “blazes, shines, seems “ (about dīvyati see under), dīdi- ‘shining, seeming” (due to from dī́ - de-ti); similar *doi-d-o- (broken Redupl.) in O.N. teitr “cheerful, blithe, glad” (lit. “radiating”), O.E. tǣ tá n “caress”, tüt- (in names) “blithe, glad”, O.H.G. zeiz “tender, graceful” (compare heiter and “clear, bright” as “blithe, glad”; Uhlenbeck O.Ind. Wb. 126); perhaps here also Lith. dìdis “big, large” as “ handsome, considerable “; Gk. Hom. δέατο (Imperfect) “he saw, discerned, perceived “, δεάμην ἐδοκίμαζον, ἐδόξαζον Hes., arkad. Konj. δεά̄τοι, Hom. Aor. δοάσσατο “to appear “, Konj. δοάσσεται, compared with arkad. Aor. δεά[σε]τοι with ο after ἔδοξε, Schwyzer Gk. I 6816; common Gk.- Illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation Maybe Alb. (*δέελος) diel “(*bright) sun” [common Alb. -e- > -ie- shift]. Hom. δέελος “visible” (*δει̯ελος; with metr. lengthening εὐδείελος), δῆλος ds. (from *δέι̯αλος, from which also Hesychs δίαλος; Hom. ἀρίζηλος “very distinct, clear, bright” (from *δι̯η-λός); *doilo- presumably in O.E. sweo-tol (from *tül) “apparent, manifest, obvious, distinct, clear, bright” and in M.Ir. dōel “beetle, chafer” (‘shining black insect”) as well as in Ir. river names Daol (*doilü) as “the shining”. Here probably also Lith. dailùs “dainty, pretty”, dáilinti ‘smooth, adorn”. With formants -tlo- presumably here being found only in the compound Gmc. *tīÞla- : zīdal-, Ger. Zeidel-, nd. tīl- “honey “(“ clearness, shine - clear honey “). Against Pedersens raising from Hitt. te-eš-ḫa- “dream” (Muršilis 69) s. Couvreur H̯ 53 and above S. 178. u̯-extension: dei̯eu- (: dié̯ u-, diu-̯ , diu̯ -) “bright, divine revered sky and bright day: Diphth. stem nom. di̯ēus (dii̯ēus), acc. di̯ēum, voc. di̯ĕu, loc. di̯éu̯i and di̯ēu, dat. diu̯éi, gen. diu-̯ és, -ós; diē̯ us-pǝtēr ‘sky father, heavenly father”. O.Ind. dyǘ uḥ (diyǘ uḥ ) ‘sky, heaven”, acc. dyǘ m, loc. dyáví, diví, dat. divḗ , gen. diváḥ (and dyōḥ ), instr. pl. dyú-bhiḥ; Gk. Ζεύς (= dyüú -ḥ), acc. Zῆν (= dyǘ m), voc. Ζεῦ (*di̯ĕu), gen. Δι(F)ός, dat. (loc.) Δι(F)ί (Ζῆν lengthened Ζῆνα, Ζηνός, Zηνί; about Ζάς by Pherekydes of Syros s. Schwyzer Gk. I 5774); the gen. *diu̯es in Thess. Διες-κουριάδεω, prien. Διες-κουρίδου (Schwyzer Gk. I 547); Maybe Rom. zeu “god” : Alb. zot “god” : Rom. zeiţů, zeitate, zânů “goddess” : Alb. zana f. “nymph, goddess”, zota f. m. “gods” : Gk. Ζῆνα [common Alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation]. in Lat. the old paradigm has split in two which designate the name of the uppermost God and the “day”; similarly in the Osc. and Umbr.:
    Note: common Lat. Illyr. d- > l- phonetic mutation: Lat. Iuppiter from Iū-piter, Umbr. Jupater voc. = Ζεῦ πάτερ, to nom. O.Ind. dyǘ ušpitǘ “father of the sky, heavenly father”, Ζεὺς πατήρ, dat. Umbr. Iuvepatre, Illyr. (Hes.) Δει- πάτυρος; Lat. gen. Iouis (altLat. also Diovis, also as nom.), Osc. Diúveí “ Jove “, íuvilam, older diuvilam “* iovilam “, iúvilas “* iovilae “ etc, compare GentilN Lat. Iūlius (*Iovilios); Maybe [from Illyr. (Hes.) Δει-πάτυρος] the compound Alb. (*Δει- ἠέλιος) diel ‘sun god, sun”, older dielë ‘sunday (day of the sun)”, where Alb. follows Lat. paradigm which designates the name of the uppermost God and the “day”. Also Alb. (*Jove-di, *jeudi) enjte “Thursday” similar to fr. jeudi “ Thursday “, Ital. jovedi “ Thursday”. Lat. Diēspiter (whereof Diülis “relating to Jupiter; “(flamen) dialis”, the priest of Jupiter”) with acc. d(i̯)i̯ēm has changed after nom. diēs, otherwise would prevail in the meaning “day”, while to the name of “ sky God “ the ablaut grade *di̯ou̯- from *di̯eu- would be accomplished under the pressure of voc. *di̯eu- (up to Diēspiter, also Umbr. Di, Dei “[masc acc. sing.] god, [neut voc. sing.] god”, contracted from diē-, so that Di(m) = *diēm); the old nom. *diūs from *di̯ēus still standing in addition toVēdiovis, Vēiovis, Vē-diū̆ s “old-röm. Underworld God “; in the meaning “day” Lat. diēs see above (m.; as f. in the meaning “date, day month year (according to the calendar), period, time” presumably after nox), yet besides the older nom. di̯ēus still in nu-diū̆ s tertius “now is the 3. day”, further diū “ by day” (loc. *di̯ēu̯ or *di̯ōu), “ for a long time “, “ a long time ago” out of it “long”. diminutive Lat. diēcula “ a little day, a short time “, Osc. [d]iíkúlús “days”, zicolo m. “day”; Maybe Alb. diel ‘sun”, dielë ‘sunday, (day of the sun)” are diminutive Illyr. forms. O.Ir. dīe, proclitic dīa “day” (from after the acc. *dii̯ēm has changed *dii̯ēs), Welsh dydd, Corn. deth, dyth, Bret. deiz “day” (also); O.Ir. in-dīu “today”, Welsh etc he-ddyw “today” (at first from *-dii̯ū, probably = Lat. diū). From the ablaut grade diu-̯ in the meaning “day”; O.Ind. dívü “during the day”, divḗ divē “day by day” (divám nom. otherwise ‘sky, heaven”), naktáṁdivam “night and day”, sudivám “a nice day”, sudivá-ḥ “ having a nice day “, Arm. tiv “day”, Gk. ἔνδῑος “ in the middle of the day (appearing)” (due to *ἐν διFί, compare ἐννύχιος); Lat. dius, interdius “of the day, in the daytime, by day “ (with Lat. syncope from gen. *diu̯ós); bi-, tri-duum (*diu̯om) “ period of two, three days “; es-stem diu̯es- presumed from O.Ind. divasá-ḥ “day”, formal to dak. διεσεμα “ common mullein, high taper “, probably from *diu̯esemü “luminous plant” (Detschev, Dak. Pflanzenn. 14 ff.); but Gk. εὔδῐος (*εὔ-διFος) “clear, cheerful”, older εὐδία “clear weather”, to O.Ind. sudivám (above); compare Sommer Nominalkomp. 73 ff. *diu̯ios in O.Ind. divyá-, diviá- “ celestial “, divyǘ ni “ the heavenly space”, Gk. δῖος (from *διFιος, Schwyzer Gk. I 472a) “divine, heavenly “, Lat. dīus “ divine, god-like; hence fine, noble; also (apparently) out of doors, in the open air “ (different from dīvus!), dīum “open space of heaven”, sub dīo; Diüna deriving from *Diviüna, “ the virgin goddess of the moon and hunting” *Diviü (?); compare etr. Tiv “moon”, tives “ months “, after Kretschmer Gl. 13, 111 f. from Ital. *diviü, and orph. Πανδῖα ‘selene (goddess of the moon)” from *παν-διFιᾰ “ all kinds of illuminators “. ablaut grade di̯u- in O.Ind. dyu-mnám “ splendor of the sky “, dyu-mánt- “bright, light”, verbal dyut- “gleam, shine” in dyṓ tatē, Aor. ved. ádyaut ‘shines” (with t probably after sv́ it- “be bright”); compare also O.C.S. dъždь “rain”, Russ. dožd”, O.Cz. dešč, etc, from *dus-di̯u- “bad weather”, Trubetzkoj Z. sl. Ph. 4, 62 ff.
    Note: Probably from a fusion of Root dheu̯es-, dhu̯ē̆s-, dheus-, dhū̆ s- “to dissipate, blow, etc. *scatter, dust, rain, breathe, perish, die” + Root dei-1, dei̯ǝ-, dī-, di̯ü- : “to shine; day; sun; sky god, god” derived Slav. (*dus-diu-): O.C.S.: dъždь “rain” [m jo] (see below). o-stem déiu̯o-s “god, the divine”: O.Ind. dēvá -ḥ “god” (dēvī́ “goddess”), Av. daēva- “demon”; Lat. deus and dīvus, by of from the paradigm *deiu̯os (> deos), gen. *deiu̯ī (> dīvī ); Osc.deívaí “goddess” (Osc. deivinais = Lat. dīvīnis; Umbr. deueia “ [fem. acc. sing.] of a deity, goddess “; maybe Alb. dif “giant” Osc. deiuatud “ to swear an oath “ = Ltv. dievâtiês ‘swear, vow”; Lat. dīves “ rich, wealthy; with abl. or genit., rich in “, lit. ‘standing under the protection of the Gods”, as Slav. bogatъ, s. Schulze KZ. 45, 190); Gaul. GN Dēvona, PN Dēvo-gnüta, O.Ir. dia, gen. dē “god”, O.Welsh duiu-(tit) “goddess, deity”, M.Welsh Welsh duw, O.Corn. duy, Bret. doué “god”; O.N. tīvar pl. “gods” (*deiu̯ōs) as well as O.N. Tȳr (aGmc. teiwaz) “the god of war”, O.E. Tīg, gen. Tīwes “Mars”, O.H.G. Zīo, Zio; aPruss. deiw(a)s, Lith. diẽvas “god” (deive ̃ “goddess, ghost” from *deiu̯i̯ü, diẽvo sūnẽliai ‘sons of the sky”, finn. Lw. taiwas ‘sky, heaven”), Ltv. dìevs (verbal derivative lies before in Lith. deivótis ‘say farewell “, Ltv. dievâtiês see above), compare Trautmann 50, Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 484, 485 f. Against it are O.C.S. divъ m. “wonder, miracle”, divo, - ese n. ds. (-es-stem probably previously after čudo, -ese ds), divьnъ “ wonderful “, didn”t derive from concept “god, deity “, but (as θαῦμα from θεάομαι) position itself to Clr. dyvl”ú, dyvūty sja ‘see, look, show”, Cz. dívam se “look, see, observe”, which behaves to O.Ind. dī́ - de-ti ‘shines” in the meaning as e.g. M.H.G. blick “lustre, shine, lightning” and “look of the eyes”, Ger. glänzen : Slav. ględati ‘see, show”. en-stem *deien- (thematic deino-, dino-) only in the meaning “day”:
    Note: The extension en-stem *deien- (thematic deino-, dino-) is of Illyrian origin. The attribute nouns that derived from adjectives in Illyr. Alb. take -ta, -nta suffix which was then reduced to common Alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutatIon. (see Alb. numbers) originally conservative still in O.C.S. dьnь, gen. dьne “day”; O.Ind. dína-m (esp. in compounds “day”, Lat. nundinae “ the market-day held during every ninth day “, maybe Alb. (*dína) dita “day” : O.Ind. dína-m (esp. in compounds “day” [common Alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation] O.Ir. denus “a period of time”, trēdenus “ three days” time, three days “; Alb. gdhinj “make day” from *-di-n-i̯ō; maybe Alb. gëdhinj “the day breaks” is a compound of zero grade *ego “I” + dína “I make the day”. zero grade Lith. dienà, Ltv. dìena, O.Pruss. acc. f. deinan “day” (Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 f., Būga Kalba Ir. S. 227 f.); Goth. sinteins “daily, perpetual, everlasting”; perhaps here O.H.G. len(gi)zin ‘springtime” from *langat-tin as “ having long days “. Kretschmer leads back to Gk. Tιν-δαρίδαι ‘sons of Zeus”, etr. Tin, Tinia “Juppiter” of a pre-Greek Tin- “Diespiter (Zeus father)”, respectively Ital. *Dinus (IE *din- “day, sky, heaven”) (Gl. 13, 111; 14, 303 ff., 19, 207; s. also Schwyzer Gk. I 65); but the older form is Συνδαρίδαι! r-extension dēi-ro-, dī-ro- in: Gmc. *tēra- (*dēi-ro-) and *tīra- (*dīro-) in O.H.G. zēri, ziari “precious, lovely, delightful, nice, superb, pretty, splendid, beautiful”, ziarī “beauty, ornament, adornment”, ziarōn “adorn, embellish”, M.L.G. tēr “lustre, shine, fame, prospering; flourishing, good constitution “, tēre and tīre “ habit, kind and way “, O.E. O.S. tīr “honour, fame”, O.N. tīrr ds.; Nor. dial. tīr “alertness, lookout, peering, light, lustre, shine”, tīra “peek, sparkle, glitter”; in addition Lith. dyre ́ti, dūroti “gawk, lurk”, dairūtis, Ltv. daīrî tiê s ‘stare about”, O.Pruss. endyrītwei (under likewise, see Būga Kalba Ir. s. 227 f., Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 f.) “watch, see” (but Bulg. díŕъ ‘search, seek” absents, s. Berneker 201); Toch. A tiri “ kind and way “. About Hitt. šiwat- “day”, šiwanni- “god” (from *di̯ēu-?), hierogl.-Hitt. tina- “god”, šijüri “appears” (*di̯ü-?) s. Pedersen Hitt. 57, 175 f. To O.Ind. dī́ vyati “plays, shows, throws dice “ (supposedly “ throws the eye “) compare with other ablaut dyūtá m “dice game”, further dēvanam “the game, dice game”, and above dyṓ tate ‘shines”, dyutiḥ “lustre, shine”, dyumánt- “bright, light”. Whether here also Av. ü- dīvyeinti “ bestir oneself, strive for “ as “ whereupon it is split apart “? compare Wackernagel, Berl. Sbb. 1918, 396 f. The fact that our root as “ vibrating light” originally one has been from deiǝ- “hurry, whirl”, seems conceivable.
    Note: Alb. cognate (*tiwali) diel ‘sun” corresponds to Luvian: tiwali(ya)- “of the Sun-(god)” and Hitt. dšiuš “(sun)god”. Hitt. dšiuš “(sun)god”, Luvian DŠiwata- ‘sun-god” Attestations: [VSg] DŠi-wa-ta: KBo XXII 137 iii 8. Commentary: Hittitized version of Luvian DTiwat-; tiwali(ya)- “of the Sun-(god)” Attestations: [VSg] ti-wa-a-li-ya: 45 ii 18, ti-wa-li-ya: 48 ii 11; XV 35 i 21; KBo VIII 69,5. Commentary: As per Starke, StBoT 31.147, iyo-adj. to Tiwat- with -l- for -d-. See also tiwari(ya)-. Luvian: tiwari(ya)- “of the Sun-(god)” Attestations: [N-APlNt] ti-wa-ri-ya: KBo II 3 iii 40. Commentary: As per Popko, KZ 97.228f, and Starke, StBoT 31.147, iyo-adj. to Tiwat- with - r- for -d-. Luvian DTiwat- ‘sun-god” Attestations: [N/VSg] (D)Ti-wa-az: 68,16; 91,8, DUTU-wa-az: 107 iii 8; KBo XXIX 25 ii 6*, DUTU-wa-za: 78,9; 48 ii 19; 107 ii 12, DUTU-az: 127,9(?); 133 ii 13; IX 31 ii 30; KBo XXIX 40,6; HT 1 ii 6, DUTU-za: 45 ii 25.26; 74,9, [VSg] ti-wa-ta(?): 19,12(bis); XXXII 70,6(?), ti-u-wa-ta(?): KBo VII 68 iii 3, [ASg] DUTU-an: KBo IX 143 iii(!) 10, [DSg] DUTU-ti-i: 107 iii 10, DUTU-ti: 36,6; KBo XXII 254 Vo 7, [GenAdj] [NSgC] DTi-wa-d[a-aš-šiiš]: 108,5, [DSg] DUTU-ša-an-za-a[n]: 90,7 (sic!). Commentary: On the last example see Melchert, Gs Carter. Cf. also 107 iii 11 and XXXII 13,11*. The assignment of the tiwata forms here is tentative. Cf. the solution of Starke, StBoT 31.149!
    Note: The sky god originated in Anatolia where he had three eyes which signified the sun, the moon and Jupiter. Ancient people didn”t make a clear distinction between the brightest planets and the sun. Actually the moon was a sun goddess. Her gender was determined by moon cycles identical with women’s menstrual cycles. The oldest cognates for the sky god are found in Anatolian languages and AlbaniO.N. Those tongues make no distinction between Jupiter and the sun. Ancient Indo Europeans believed that there were several suns not just one. As the brightest celestial body at night sky, Jupiter was identified as the aspect of the sun at night - or just another sun. Because of their extreme luster Jupiter and often Mars were all considered minor sun gods. This is the reason why the brightest planet became known in Illyr. Δει-πάτυρος “father god”. Probably Anatolian languages borrowed the sun god cognate from Sumerian Utu ‘sun god”.
    References: WP. I 772 f., WH. I 345 f., 347, 349 f., 355, 357 f., 727, 732, 860, Schwyzer Gk. I 576 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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